Friday, August 28, 2020

Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror Essay - 7

Common Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror - Essay Example The Bush organization picked U.S. Maritime Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, as a lawful dark gap to burr prisoners from preliminaries. Prisoners serving inconclusive time in the confinement community have gone untried and others discharged without clear legitimate grounds regarding why they spent time in jail in any case. Thinking about back the pertinence of the habeas corpus, the US Constitution gives that prisoners reserve the option to hearings in court to demonstrate their blame or honesty. Concerning mankind, decency, equity, and opportunity to rise to human rights, habeas corpus gives grounds to evaluating official position while maintaining the pertinence of US established arrangements. The privilege of habeas corpus is an English customary law item. Its major importance is to make methods for bringing people under the watchful eye of the focal courts. In the fourteenth century, habeas corpus was utilized to enquire into the grounds of an individual’s confinement by nearby courts. In the sixteenth century, courts applied habeas corpus to enquire into the confinements requested by the King’s Privy Council (a body mixing legal and official forces). In the seventeenth century, parliament made strides to fortify the importance of habeas corpus bringing the King’s demonstrations into its extension, consequently, making the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 (Habeas Corpus Act, 1679). With advancements in English Law, habeas corpus was sent out to the vast majority of Britain’s settlements. As the soonest established assurance, habeas corpus happened in the US in 1789. Its pertinence to both the English and the American Law is that it targets giving components to bring a confined individual under the watchful eye of an appointed authority to ensure the individual’s physical uprightness. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights, following a 1987 warning sentiment, contended that the habeas corpus played out an imperative job in the security of

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Home Depot Essay Example for Free

Home Depot Essay Today’s showcase is described by exceptionally serious associations which are altogether competing for consumer’s dependability. Firms are confronted with the test to keep up their own serious edge to have the option to endure and be effective. Techniques are deliberately arranged and executed to pick up a definitive objective of all: organization development. Be that as it may, outer elements are not by any means the only components which impact development. Today most organizations find that it difficult to make any sort of maintainable upper hand dependent on item alone. It is regular information that all of the effective organizations looked for and found an exact comprehension of how it could make a client focused upper hand. Alongside the changing industry world, clients change too, getting more requesting and learned than previously. Thusly, organization the board had moved their emphasis on their customers or clients to remain effectively in business. This progress implied that associations need to totally reformulate their traditional business points and purposes from being process-centered to client focused. Henceforth, so as to bring out excellent client benefits inside the organization activities, the administration should utilize tweaked authoritative rebuilding. Also, utilizing proactive client responsibility includes the thought on culture and framework (Lowenstein, 1997). Associations that benefit from clients dynamic investment in authoritative exercises can increase upper hand through more noteworthy deals volume, improved working efficiencies, positive informal exposure, diminished advertising costs, and upgraded client faithfulness (Lovelock Young, 1979; Reichheld Sasser, 1990). As opposed to pursuing each potential wellspring of income, organizations take out futile resources that don't include an incentive for customers’ fulfillment. Business associations actualize bureaucratic strategies and methodology to help the staff, clients and the organization when all is said in done. As per Bowers, Martin Luker (1990), if shoppers some way or another become better clients that is, progressively learned, participative, or profitable the nature of the administration experience will probably be improved for the client and the association. Organization Profile The Home Depot is the universes biggest home improvement retailer and second biggest retailer in the United States. From one store to $73. 1 Billion in deals, Home Depot has progressed significantly in a brief timeframe. This association is exceptionally natural to this essayist as he was utilized here for a couple of years subsequent to leaving the Marine Corps and was his first regular citizen work. Home Depot stands apart more than numerous associations that this author has worked for in light of the fact that it was his first regular citizen association and numerous alterations must be made. The organization disseminates ordinary occupations to members and makes rules, approaches, measures, and progressive authoritative diagrams to sort out different activities. Home Depot should consistently revise their structures to get acquainted with the environment shifts, innovation changes, hierarchical develop, and authority changes. Moreover, structure is likewise a way to high-performing groups. Careful attention to structure and jobs in groups will make the group significantly more fruitful. With regards to administration, basic initiative contributes a basic job in forming associations. It very well may be compelling and steady, despite the fact that it is increasingly limited and less chivalrous initiative looked at on different casings. Basic Change In the conventional flexibly chain the executives utilized by organizations that import materials for creation, many individuals, time and cash are contributed upon to guarantee that the requests of the makers will be taken care of in the predetermined date and time required. Before having the option to put in a request of shipment of crude materials, a few exchanges are counseled between the provider and the producer that gobbles up their esteemed time. The gracefully stream ordinarily incorporates the goal of request, citation, affirmation, conveyance, installment and treatment of receipts. Incredible measure of time is expended in the simple arranging of the buy requests of an assembling organization. Also, since more often than not the exchanges include not just a solitary provider, particularly on account of immense global makers, makers manage sub-providers with a few forwarders from which various solidifications are traded. The outstanding task at hand and time that the stock chiefs handle characterizes the procedure business forms that will follow that predicts and keeps up the achievement and benefit of the entire business association. That is the reason, proficiency tallies! The best providers persistently update and overhaul their administration conveyances so as to answer the requests of their clients. Clients have the ever-expanding request on getting their hands into the items which can prompt change in provider if desires are not met. This is the motivation behind why providers who are likewise industry pioneers pattern toward increasingly dependable conveyance benefits over their clients. Nonetheless, issues of conveyance are typically gone to by most organizations through with either convenient solutions that don't work or complete and far reaching plans that take excessively long and are costly. The Implemented Plan of Changes Customer Satisfaction Along with the changing industry world, clients change also, getting more requesting and proficient than previously. Thusly, organization the board had moved their attention on their customers or clients in order to remain effectively in business. This change implied that associations need to totally reformulate their customary business points and purposes from being process-centered to client focused. Reevaluating and reformulating the association then again, involve the thought of a few factors, for example, different procedures, innovation, nature just as the achievement elements of individuals (Cohen and Moore, 2000). Thus, so as to bring out extraordinary client benefits inside the organization activities, the administration should utilize adjusted hierarchical rebuilding. In addition, utilizing proactive client duty includes the thought on culture and framework (Lowenstein, 1997). Web based Marketing The huge development of mechanical progression has become the main impetus of contemporary enterprises. The dispersion of the web has reformed the business field. The utilization of the Internet is evolving cutting edge advertising for the time being while various enterprises have been attempting to utilize it as a component of their showcasing procedure. It has not just reconfigured the manner in which various firms work together and the manner in which the customers purchase products and ventures, yet it has likewise become a viable instrument in changing the worth chain from makers to retailers to shoppers, making another retail dispersion channel (Appelbaum et sl, 1998). E-advertising is a useful asset utilized by various business associations around the globe. It is characterized as the way toward accomplishing advertising destinations using electronic interchanges innovation. Smith and Chaffey (2001) have given a 5Ss’ mental aide to how the web can be applied by all business firms for various e-showcasing strategies. These 5S’s are selling, serve, talk, spare and sizzle. E-promoting is additionally known to be the web based showcasing system used by various organization whose goal is to be the best organization in their field. In different nations around the world, increasingly more business firms have been utilizing e-advertising procedure so as to be serious. From books, nourishments and refreshments, vehicles and different items and administrations, different firms, irregardless of their organization sizes, are attempting to make due by methods for e-advertising methodology. Beside being a limited time medium, the web is an instrument for promoting correspondences also. Because of its intelligent nature, the web is an effective strategy utilized in speaking with the customers. Henceforth, a few organizations are starting to understand the upsides of utilizing the web as an instrument for correspondence. Organizations at that point began to focus on planning web-related methodologies and utilizing intelligent offices that will encourage their improvement of explicit organization sites as a major aspect of their incorporated promoting correspondence methodology. There are organizations nonetheless, that are viably utilizing the web by fusing their web-related systems with different regions of their IMC procedures. The methodology currently becomes incorporated and progressively key. On-line promoting is viewed as the most costly yet is by all accounts the most exhaustive advertising system that each organization needs to execute and apply. At present, individuals, especially those in the business field, will in general draw in themselves inside the pattern of quickly developing innovation in order to remain serious. After riding the web, different organizations have set up their official destinations online for clients and potential customers to see. On the web or e-advertising is the most recent showcasing approach for any firm who needs to successfully showcase its items and administrations. What's more, e-advertising empowers the organization to be known worldwide since an ever increasing number of individuals can get to data got from the web. Inside the business world, where rivalry is exacting, web promoting is one basic advertising system applied by most ventures. Administration Delivery Service impalpability implies that administrations can't be seen, tasted, felt, heard, or smelled before they are purchased. For instance, individuals experiencing restorative medical procedure can't see the outcome before buy. Aircraft travelers have only a ticket and a guarantee that their baggage will show up securely at the proposed goal, ideally simultaneously. They make determinations about the quality from the spot, individuals, value, gear, and interchanges tha

Friday, August 21, 2020

Free Essays on Pioneers Of Western Civilization

Western human progress has a wide range of pioneers that helped structure the way of life to what it is today. A wide range of developments, for example, trackers and accumulates, antiquated Egyptians, and Sumerians added to western human progress. Without these various human advancements contributing, society would not be the place it is today. These civic establishments of man contributed horticultural strategies, laws with power, devices, composing, science and religion. The principal human advancements were trackers and gatherers who meandered the grounds in urgent need of nourishment and materials. In the long run humankind would create strategies for developing nourishment, so they would not need to meander around itinerant. The main progress to create agrarian procedures was the Neolithic social orders. By moving to horticulture harmonized with progresses in stone device innovation, brought the improvement of more noteworthy accuracy. When trainings had occurred, individuals could move to territories where these plants and creatures didn't happen normally. The innovation of ceramics additionally empowered individuals to store surplus nourishments and fluids, and to move them, just as to cook rural items were hard to eat. Likewise crops required steady consideration from planting to reap, so Neolithic ranchers constructed lasting homes. The ranchers additionally fabricated little two-man round cottages and bunched in bunches around a focal stockpi ling place. Later individuals manufactured square and rectangular family estimated house with singular stockpiling spots and fenced in areas to house domesticated animals. Neolithic towns would in general act naturally adequate. The Ancient Egyptians acquired a culture that was extraordinary from numerous others of that specific time. At the point when individuals think about the Egyptian, they think about the pyramids, the sphinx, and the pharaohs. Numerous individuals don't understand the commitments the old Egyptians made to western human progress. They contributed through the laws and guidelines, which looked after society. The Egyptian individuals accepted that their... Free Essays on Pioneers Of Western Civilization Free Essays on Pioneers Of Western Civilization Western human progress has a wide range of pioneers that helped structure the way of life to what it is today. A wide range of human advancements, for example, trackers and accumulates, antiquated Egyptians, and Sumerians added to western development. Without these various civic establishments contributing, society would not be the place it is today. These developments of man contributed horticultural procedures, laws with power, devices, composing, arithmetic and religion. The principal civic establishments were trackers and gatherers who meandered the grounds in urgent need of nourishment and materials. In the long run humankind would create strategies for developing nourishment, so they would not need to meander around itinerant. The main progress to create horticultural strategies was the Neolithic social orders. By moving to farming agreed with propels in stone device innovation, brought the improvement of more noteworthy accuracy. When regulations had occurred, individuals could move to zones where these plants and creatures didn't happen normally. The development of stoneware additionally empowered individuals to store surplus nourishments and fluids, and to move them, just as to cook agrarian items were hard to eat. Likewise crops required steady consideration from planting to gather, so Neolithic ranchers constructed changeless residences. The ranchers likewise assembled little two-man round hovels and bunched in bunches around a focal stockpil ing place. Later individuals fabricated square and rectangular family estimated house with singular stockpiling spots and walled in areas to house animals. Neolithic towns would in general act naturally adequate. The Ancient Egyptians acquired a culture that was exceptional from numerous others of that specific time. At the point when individuals think about the Egyptian, they think about the pyramids, the sphinx, and the pharaohs. Numerous individuals don't understand the commitments the old Egyptians made to western human advancement. They contributed through the laws and guidelines, which looked after society. The Egyptian individuals accepted that their...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Hidden Treasure of Writing Thesis

The Hidden Treasure of Writing Thesis Students will become grammatically sound and plagiarism free work in the long run. They will not get a fluff work in the end. They would access the online tutors for immediate help. They must make sure that they are getting a quality work. Writing Thesis Can Be Fun for Everyone You should construct a thesis that you're well prepared to prove employing the tools you've got available, without needing to consult the world's foremost expert on the issue to supply you with a definitive judgment. There are a few of the tips that could make your life process easier by offering the best tips on essay writing written by brilliant minds. 1 thing you have to bear in mind is this to should take feedback on early basis. Thus, make certain you put all provided instructions in mind as it is going to be the reason for delay later on. Normally, Technical Paper Writing is a really important zone in paper research. Regardless of what genre you would l ike Business Studies, Microeconomics, Business Management and Financial Accounting, we're here to serve your needs. Our Expert's Best Editing Thesis Advice I understand that almost all of us feel like writing thesis is simply a 1 task that can be finished in one sitting. Here's What I Know About Writing Thesis Anyone who wants to submit a premium quality thesis to the university may apply for the dissertation editing services. It online tuition ought to be a quick service and also it ought to be affordable as students can't pay enormous quantities. Colleges and universities frequently have a book or brochure that delivers information on the necessary format of all theses and dissertations. When a student is searching for a service provider company he must make sure the provider is not just a money maker. Writing Thesis - Dead or Alive? Thesis writing demands massive info and knowledge about a specific topic as a way to earn perfect remarks. A superb thesis statement expre sses your take or opinion in addition to your conclusion about the subject. Once you are finished with the subject, you can begin with the thesis. Academic writing for thesis is quit a tough job and requires that a student be well equipped with lots of of knowledge on the subject of the thesis that is only possible if one dedicates their time to perform intense and thorough research on the topic and narrow it down to fit within the reach of the topic. Writing a thesis statement can be among the most important, yet most troublesome pieces of your whole paper. It is essential for one to comprehend what constitutes plagiarism. Another tip to contemplate is that writing a thesis statement isn't like your normal assignment. Before you hand in your thesis, you should make sure that you've written some skilled and individual acknowledgements. What you just need to make sure is its relevance, appropriateness and completeness to the full article. You're able to easily buy unique college essays and don't neglect to tell friends and family about it. Writing in college often requires the shape of persuasion convincing others that you've got an interesting, logical viewpoint on the subject you're studying. Try to remember, it doesn't hurt to incorporate some pictures and charts about what you're writing. The Debate Over Writing Thesis The very first line of the thesis statement should be useful to have an ideal thesis statement. The structure of your whole thesis is one very important matter that you shouldn't also take for granted. Therefore, writing a thesis statement gets very important very fast. Whil e writing your thesis statement can look like a daunting job. If you wish to get the very best result for your thesis, you have to be flexible in your work. You have to finish and submit your thesis within a predetermined time. Most students find it tough to compose a thesis. Every student trying to obtain master's degree should earn a research and compose a persuasive master's thesis.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Person Who Changed My Life - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 462 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/09/21 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Life Essay Success Essay Did you like this example? MY FATHER- THE PERSON WHO HAS INFLUENCED ME IN MY LIFE Right from the word go , he has been my inspiration . A man with immense wisdom and advise , my father has made me what I am to day . He is the linchpin of my success in my life . My father is a very hard-working person and one who values education in one s life . Being a teacher by profession , I was really touched with the way he used to concentrate all his efforts in making his students pass . This also made me to follow his footsteps by working extremely hard in school . He also encouraged and advised me to work even harder , telling me that the sky was the limit . Today , I am convinced that with the course am pursuing , I would get a very good job out of it . My father is a person with a lot of respect for both his elders and younger ones . All along my entire lifetime , I have seen the sober manner in which he settles domestic scores and reprimanded us when we erred . In both cases , consultations and dialogue w ere the key traits that guided him . This has taught me the importance of tolerating other people s injustices and seeking for consultations in times of difficulties . As a consequence , I have been able to live harmoniously with both friends and foes . My moral decorum and uprightness is all owed to my father He always warned me against engaging in immoral activities. Being a humble and down-to-earth person , my father ensured that we were like him . I leant the need of swallowing one s pride whenever success knocks the door . Instead , forgetting the past success and working even harder isthe motto . The word Love sounds little but few people understand what it really means to love . It is a trait that cannot easily be self cultivated in an individual person . It can only be shown in a person and the person would also show it onto others in return . It is a trait that my father had and still possesses . It has enabled me to extend my love to all who associate with me in one way or another . I believe in doing things early and fast in life . This is something that I learnt from my father . I remember his most favorite saying that , and I quote the early bird catches the warm Then the question is how has this saying helped me to be what I am and where I am ? Because of the enthusiasm to accomplish things /works early in life , I was able to finish finish both my education at the most appropriate times . It is my father who cultivated in me the culture of disliking drug abuse and consumption of Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Person Who Changed My Life" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Music Is A Form Of Art In Which People Paint Pictures With

Music is a form of art in which people paint pictures with their words and instruments. On April 19th I attended an amazing performance at Prince George’s Community college that was a prime example of this. The piano concert was a duet performed by Josiah Stocker and Hyeeum Hahm. They performed Vif, Modere and Brasileira by Darius Milhaud; Hoe-down, and Saturday Night Waltz by Aaron Copland; and VII. Waltz, V Rag, and VIII. A la Turk by Dave Brubeck. They played each piece beautifully but the enjoyed the most was VII. Waltz by Dave Brubeck which will be the topic of this report. For this concert the only instrument played were pianos. As stated before they were played by Josiah Stocker and Hyeeum Hahm. Because of the lack of vocals, I†¦show more content†¦There was variety in the notes and the pitch throughout the music. The song had a dynamic of mezzo forte because the song didn’t get very loud but it wasn’t soft. The timber was resonant and clear. The song had a quintuple meter with a steady beat. There were a few accents but no syncopation. The tempo was on the allegretto tempo. Some of the musical components that can be found in VII. Waltz are melody, harmony, and musical texture. The melody did have some part when it was legato while other parts were staccato. The while the harmony did contain a couple of dissonance chords overall it was consonance. I believe the piece contained a both a triad and a broken chord. Because the two piano where playing two different parts what competed at times the musical texture was polyphonic but was homophonic at times. The way in which both pianists played it was phenomenal. I could tell they practiced and were very comfortable with what they were playing and the pianos. There were also very in sync with each other. I am not a musician but from what I could hear they were always playing what they needed to at the right time. Playing in a duet I believe would be more difficult because if you mess up you can throw the other pianist off but I don’t think that happened. Each piece, especially VII. Waltz was played seam lessly. Both players seemed very skilled and confident. In both of the people’s cases, they didn’t have to look at the keys when playing, just at theShow MoreRelatedArts in Culture1509 Words   |  7 PagesArts in Culture Art is about ideas and representing them into visible perceptions and concepts. These ideas come from the heart and mind of the individual artist, putting all the talent they have into the artwork. In a way, that makes everyone that can specialize in a certain activity and create their expressions an artist. 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These are the componentsRead MoreEssay on Fine Arts Should Remain a Curriculum at Public Schools1417 Words   |  6 PagesLets paint a picture together. Blank walls, silent rooms, and shy students are what is brushed on the canvas. Our picture is a result of the limitations put on the powers of artistry. Staci Maiers validates that â€Å"the school play, the marching band, the drama club, the student art show - they’re usually highlights of a student’s education† (1). â€Å". . . [Fine Arts] can connect people more deeply to the world and open them to new ways of seeing, creating the foundation to forge social bonds andRead More Georgia OKeeffe Essay1321 Words   |  6 PagesOKeeffe The meaning of a word - to me - is not as exact as the meaning of a color. Colors and shapes make a more definite statement than words. I write this because such odd things have been done about me with words. I have often been told what to paint. I am often amazed at the spoken and written word telling me what I have painted. I make this effort because no one else can know how my paintings happen. Where I was born and where and how I have lived is unimportant. It is what I have done withRead MoreEssay about Digital Art Technology1504 Words   |  7 PagesDigital Art Technology Technology is constantly growing and changing our ways of living. It makes life easier at times, and more interesting too. When one would think of art in the past, usually computers and technology did not come to mind. Now because of modern technology, the digital age is uncovering vast ways to create amazing works of art through computer tools and software. Art is now digitally created and can appear unbelievable to the modern eye. Digital art technologyRead MoreThe Main Reason Knowledge Is Produced Is Solve Problems1204 Words   |  5 Pageswas simply Eratosthenes pushing himself to find out something that was seemingly impossible and unusable. Also, what problem does art solve? Art does not solve problems. Sometimes it illuminates and commentates on them, but other times, it simply is an expression of creativity. Most artists do not paint and draw and sculpt to solve problems in the world. They do their art because they love it, and it is their way of expressing themselves and their individuality. They are also able to critique society

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Integrating Care And Justice Moral Development Argumentative Essay Example For Students

Integrating Care And Justice: Moral Development Argumentative Essay Sign up now for a free trial. Date Smarter!IntegratingCare and Justice: Moral DevelopmentPart One:The criticisms of Kohlbergs moral developmentstages seem to center around three major points, his research methods,the regression of stage four, and finally his goals. The first criticism that I would like toaddress is that of his research methods. Kohlberg is often criticized fornot only his subject selection, but also the methods by which he triesto extricate data from those subjects. His initial study consisted of schoolboys from a private institution in Chicago. The problem with this is fairlyobvious, that this does not represent a significant portion of the populationto allow for generalized conclusions. In other words, how can we test someboys from Chicago and ascertain that this is how all people develop worldwide?I believe that the answer to this criticismcomes from the theory that it relates to. Kohlbergs moral developmentschema is highly dependent upon the idea that there are fundamental truthsthat cannot be dismissed. These ideas are in the ether, wound into thevery fabric that constructs human nature. Granted, his descriptions ofthe various stages also seem very dependent upon the surroundings and socialinstitutions that an individual w ould be subjected to. Yet these institutionswould be have to be built upon people, all of whom would share these ideologicaltruths. It seems fairly obvious that all people have undeniable needs,survival and some group membership. Kohlbergs stages are merely methodsby which one could fulfill these needs. For instance, Spartan societieswere adamant about maintaining the purity and strength of the civilization. Citizens saw no wrong in exposing a sick or lame baby to the elements sothat it might die. Surely an act of cruelty today, but in that society,a necessary evil The prosperity and wealth of the whole was of greaterimportance than that of the individual. In addition to these justifications, additionalresearch substantiated Kohlbergs claims. Different subjects were tested,from all ages and regions, and the same conclusions were drawn from thedata. Assuming that these conclusions are correct, and the data leads tothe same interpretation, is there any other possibility? This argumentseems most impressive, especially considering the differences between peoplethat are evident in everyday life. Similarities on such an abstract levelmust be supportive of Kohlbergs claims. Another criticism of Kohlberg assumes thathis subjects are biased, but proposes that his methods are even worse. To get the perspective of another person, he confronts them with seeminglyimpossible, unrealistic, and confrontational dilemmas. I, myself, had troublewith the Heinz dilemma because of my inability to believe that it was somethingthat could take place in the real world. Even more so, the situation wassomething that was very foreign, and very hard to relate to. Anyone whohas contemplated something very life changing, like a death in the family,then experienced it, understands how different it is to actually be facedwith the dilemma. When theorizing, it is hard to maintain the intimateconnection needed to truly react to a moral dilemma. My defense of this situation comes froma lack of a suitable alternative. True moral dilemmas are not only rare,but extremely hard to document. When faced with a situation that demandsnot only ones complete attention, but emotional vigor, it is really hardto find time to document or discuss feelings (let alone the motivationto do so!). For example, looking at the Heinz dilemma, it would be veryhard to explain why one was chasinga man around while he tried to finda cure for his dying wife. An even less enticing alternative would be tryingto sit him down and discuss how he was feeling. So, the only proper and effective way toget a response is to propose a hypothetical situation, and document replies. It may not elicit the pure data that one desires, but according to theHeisenberg principle, it is impossible to measure anything without influencingit. Some research methods indicate that it is more important to followones thoughts through the reasoning process, rather than just asking forpossible solutions. However, I have to believe, and justify from personalexperience, that people have incredibly low attention spans. Asking someoneto explain how they think through a decision is almost as likely to yielduseful data as asking them to volunteer their PIN numbers. It seems asthough people are able not only to be influenced, but to influence themselvesinto making different decisions. This can lead to the endless circleconversation. The criticism that I find most interestingis the supposed regression that occurs when going from stage three tofour. Personally, I must agree with the idea that it is, in fact, a prioritychange. I also believe that this comes from my undeniable faith in thegoodness of humanity. I would like to believe that in their heart andsoul, everyone is good natured. So, to see that one must develop stagefour is disappointing. Yet, I will agree that it is necessary. It is a comprehensive step, and an improvement from the stage three pointof view. No matter how enticing and supposedly noble stage three appears,it is lacking components necessary to promote the functionality of theperson who holds it. A loss of innocence is not necessarily a detriment,especially when considering personal experience. Skin tends to thickenas one gets older. Therefore, is it necessarily a regression that someonewould tend to trust others less, and be more interested maintaining socialinstitutions?I believe that this in no way representsa regression, but rather a broadened scope and interpretation of surroundings. At level three, you are totally interested in fulfilling the obligationsthat are expected of you. The world seems a very small place, one personand your surroundings, people, places, and things. If the requirementsthat are expected from day to day, from people who are very close to youcan be fulfilled, that is the absolute goal. As one grows older, you areexposed to more of the institutions and methods that are integral to therelationship and interaction of all people. The rules have changed. Thereare more requirements, more expected of you. Unfortunately, every persondoes not have limitless resources with which to meet all of these goals. So, priorities must change. New social institutions now appear to be thedriving force in happiness and security. So, they now encompass all thepriorities that drove a person at stage three. To fulfill the previousstages goals with this new scope, one must dedicate resources to it. Finally, I would like to discuss Kohlbergspoint of view when considering what I call his goals. Some have criticizedthat Kohlberg is trying to objectify morality to a Natural Law, or justiceperspective. Although he does seem to abstract characteristics to a societallevel, I do not believe that his is an honest attempt to undermine thegathered data integrity. In other words, although it seems he is drawingthe same conclusions over and over, he is not distorting it to do so. Kohlberg is often criticized for a libertarianideological bias in his conclusions of gathered data. In addition, it hasbeen observed that his conclusions are carefully explained, argued anddefended, but they can be twisted and contorted to fit any range of differentopinions. They mandate an agreement to social contract, that being usedas a philosophical base from which moral guidelines are built. But socialsystems differ from region to region, and within regions by people. I believe that the criticisms themselvesdo not harm Kohlbergs views, but rather enforce them. As I have discussedbefore, there are undeniable personal needs that every individual worksto fulfill, regardless of stated motives. Everyone needs to survive, andto be emotionally fulfilled by belonging. The systems by which people administertheir interaction are simply tools by which they meet those needs. However,I have also said that I have a flawless devotion to the goodness of mankind. Thereby, I believe that people are trying to better their situation relativeto one another and the situation of society as a whole. Kohlberg may viewthese moral ideals as too socially interactive, but isnt that what thetrue goal of any of this is? People truly feel good when they have mettheir desires, and one of those is to exist with other people in a cohesivesocial system. As unbelievable as it may sound, Kohlbergs findings donot represent distorted data, but rather the incredible coincidence thatall people, on some level, are inherently similar. It would be unfair to try to enforce theideas that come with Kohlbergian justice without also defending Carol Gilliganstheme of caring. Therefore, I would like to address three criticisms: theparadox of self-care, the idea that care is a regressive movement, andfinally, the seemingly huge jump from stage one to two. I personally find the self-care characteristicof caring to be the most interesting to discuss. During class sessions,everyone seemed most interested with this perspective. It seems as thoughit is the ethical issue that plagues society. Where does the balance liebetween seeking to fulfill ones own interests, and meeting the requirementsplaced upon one by others? I believe that we all recognize a need to initializeand solidify a healthy caring for oneself before it is possible to be outwardlycaring for others. However, the way that this method is proposedmakes it appear as though it might be a cop-out. My perspective comes from the fact thatthere is no really appropriate way to show self-care without seeming self-centered. No matter how little one dedicates to oneself, no matter what the circumstances,someone will see it as too much. Yet, there is no effective way to showcompassion, respect, or contentment with the outside world without firstdeveloping all of these attributes within oneself. When constructing thisself-persona, the goal is not to become conceited, but rather to developa foundation upon which more complex interactions can be constructed. Ofcourse, any well intentioned act can be construed into something that itis not. I truly believe that this is the case when critiquing self-care. I would also like to argue that self-careas a whole is not what it seems to be, nor is it what its name implies. Rather, it is a competence at a certain level personal and societal development. At earlier times in ones life, the easiest way to contribute to surroundingsis to not harm them. For instance, it would not be expected of a toddlerto assist in the preparation of dinner. The best that he could hope todo is not destroy anything! At this level of development adequacy is definedby not harming something, not necessarily working towards its betterment. Do Computers Think? EssayLaws, rules and regulations take over for individualistic judgement, helpingto herd everyone into the proper behavior. With this new system, we obviously losesome of the aspects of stage three that were most attractive. We no longerhave the family dedicated, honor above-all-else person that we did in theprevious stage. He has been replaced with someone who is now, at best,a law abiding citizen. The principles of stage three have been incorporated,though not fully, into the pragmatism of stage four. For instance, a lawlessor unconventional act that would not have been tolerated at stage threewould be ignored at stage four so that the integrity of the social systemwould not be compromised. We lose the hardcore justice orientation, andreplace it with a more flexible society-inclusive system. Increasing the size of anything to encompassmore increases its complexity. Complexity means that this system is notonly hard to maintain, but increasingly slow to acquiesce to the changingneeds of the people. It takes a lot of time to change an entire societysinterpretations. Status-quo stagnation occurs very quickly, and reformseemingly takes forever. So, imagine that we could take stage four,plop in into a blender, add some stage three, and come out with an evenbetter system. What would we do? This is the next question to be addressed. Looking at stage threes and stage fours adequacies and areas of lacking,we need to incorporate pieces of both into an entirely new system. The real goal is to somehow take stagethrees interpersonal nobility and faith, and give them to a stage fourperson. At the same time, we do not want to undermine the societal interactivenessof stage four! I believe that what we end up with is the theoretical modelof a democracy. For instance, we take stage fours society agreed uponcontract (assuming that it is somewhat noble, as opposed to something fromthe Third Reich). We now assume that an act has been committed that bordersbetween criminality and unconventionalism. How could we approach this?Stage three says: If it isnt a threat to my immediate person, or thosewho surround me, then dont worry about it. Stage four would reply: Whatof its effect on the social system, is it against the law? What we reallyneed to do is combine the two perspectives. If this act is first viewedto warrant public action (an arrest, trial, or hearing), then that shouldbe the course of action. It is what takes place next that is very important. During the proceedings, each and every person must come to terms with itin their own way. They must decide if it is destructive, constructive,or indifferent. As a group, they must decide on the best course of action. This way we have incorporated the individualistic judgement and nobilityof each person and fused it with societal administration. In addition,we have allowed each person to place part of their own golden rule interpretationinto the system. By carefully combining the features oftwo very different stages, we have come up with a system that is bettersuited to meeting the needs of a population. Unfortunately, it was inventedhundreds of years ago, and implemented in the United States Constitution. Granted, it does not work perfectly, but it seems a suitable compromisewhen considering the alternatives. It may be a slow process, and one thatcan be abused to fit ones needs, but it is the only one that incorporatesthe individual into the molding of the system. The final part of this paper will be dedicatedto the combination of two very different arenas of thought, the moral developmentpaths of justice and care. Some have argued for and against each, somehave argued for and against both. What we will try to do is to build anentirely new moral system on the strengths of these two. Theoretically,we should come up with a super-competent solution, one that is better thanthe two individually. Rather than try to develop this step by step andpoint by point (which would be intolerable after about the second line),Id like to just give my interpretation of what the final product wouldlook like. One note: the most that can be possibly asked of any personin any system is that they give 100 percent all the time. Therefore, anytheorizing that we do is subject to the fact that people only have theresources to accomplish certain things. To combine the best features of two diametricallydifferent institutions of thought we have to first identify what thosefeatures are. Kohlbergian justice is the pragmatic, society oriented varietythat is admittedly dedicated to preserving social systems. Gilligans caringis predicated on good interaction between people. Although they sound likethey might be trying to achieve the same things, they are going at it intwo separate ways. Kohlberg wants to invent a system by which all peopleknow what is expected of them. Rules are proposed, agreed upon, set down,and enforced. Each and every person knows what is appropriate behavior. Even at stage five, the supposed highest known stage of Kohlbergs development,the society rates very high. There may be different ways to approach runninga society, but there is no question that there must be something runningit. Gilligan seems to agree that people needrules by which they can relate to one another. However, she seems to delvedeeper into the actual motivations of those rules. While obeying the regulationsof society, you must also show some sort of compassion and caring for otherpeople. As a trivial example, Kohlbergs system would say that it was rudeto interrupt someone who is speaking. Gilligan would say that merely notinterrupting is not adequate. Instead, you must show interest in what thatperson is trying to say. You must somehow relate with the speaker on somelevel. In doing so, you not only draw more from his words, but you showthat you can identify with him. Another feature of Gilligans work thatI feel should be integrated into the justice theme is that of self-care. When put down in words it seems somewhat egotistical and self-centered. Kohlberg would be interested in self-care only if it contributed to maintainingsociety. But balancing the needs of the many, and the needs of the fewis the hardest part about effectively administering any group of people. Some individuals will have very menial needs, others will say they requireluxuries. The key is to provide a method by which all people can fulfillthose needs. Self-care will differ significantly between even similar people. So, rather than trying to meet their needs outright, it is better to justprovide a chance by which they can provide for themselves. Thus achievinga balance between self-care and still allotted care for others. (I know,Im drawing the democracy parallelism again, sorry!)Kohlberg provides us with the minimal frameworkby which regulations maintain the necessities of people. If his guidelinesare followed, it can be said that everyone who lives by them will be atleast partially satisfied. Gilligan, on the other hand, shows us that thereis a much deeper level to which we can all aspire. Putting effort intoeveryday interaction, from talking to listening, can greatly enhance everyexperience. In doing so, we are not only improving the quality of our ownlives, but also the lives of those we interact with. Another aspect of caring that I would liketo bring into the justice world is included in level three, the highestlevel of caring. It states that there are absolutely no black or whiteissues. What might be correct for one person, is not necessarily the samefor another. This would fill a huge hole in the Kohlberg moral developmentsystem. Justice is largely criticized because it forces everyone intoa social group. It then slaps some rules down, and expects that they areapplicable to everyone. Gilligan states that this is not true, but rather,everything is a shade of gray. Be careful though! This does not mean thatrules are now not applicable to anyone. Rather, it states that we mustuse our judgement when considering transgressions of the law. There maybe special circumstances that need to be addressed. Finally, Kohlbergs critics have said thatstage five is too arbitrary. It is not easy to tell exactly how much oneowes to the social contract, or what to do with people who do not necessarilyagree with it. Gilligan would argue that there is a way to resolve thisconflict of interests through dialogue, attention, and compromise. WhereKohlbergs system leave opportunity for arbitration, Gilligans says thatthere is no need. Instead of giving people a hard set of rules to liveby, or demanding their surrender to a contract, we could talk to them individuallyand address the situation. At the same time, justice maintains thatthere are undeniable rules that must be obeyed. So, we are combining thebest of both worlds. Using Kohlbergs justice orientation, we are guaranteeingthe sanctity of all those who have already agreed to the social contract. Concurrently, were taking it upon ourselves to listen to a non-supportiveperson, and possibly come to a small compromise to fit their needs. In conclusion, it seems that there is definitelya way to combine the Kohlberg justice theme and the Gilligan caring themeof moral development. Mr. Kohlberg provides a method to police a societythat does not include 100 percent utopian citizens. Ms. Gilligan givesus the ability to relate to each and every person, as a person. She indicatesways that we can identify with their perspectives, understand their needs,and compromise. Although the real world seems infinitely more complex thaneither of these models, they bear a frightening resemblance to real societiesand real people. Maybe someday, a perfect model will be constructed, judgedby a perfect path of moral development. Until then, I hope that I havefound a good combination of these two ideas. One last side note: I think I could spendweeks typing a paper on this subject. There are thousands of facets ofeach system that could fit into the others potential flaws. However, Ithink Ive been long-winded enough as it is. I have tried to make my pointsas succinct and reasonable as possible, but without sacrificing exactlywhat I wanted to say. Thank you for your patience.