Monday, January 13, 2020
In the sad and deep poem of Ã¢â¬Å"Carpet weavers MoroccoÃ¢â¬ , Carol Rumens portrays the lives of the children as tough and bounded by labour. She depicts this through uses of language features such as metaphors, similes and personification. She creates vivid images through the strong choice of words and adds feeling through language techniques. In stanza one line one she says Ã¢â¬Å"the children are at the loom of another worldÃ¢â¬ . This means that the child laborers are not like everyone else. They have matured earlier and have given up their childhoods in order to earn just enough money for all of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s basic necessities. This world that they are in is not one many other children around the world are bounded to. Carol describes them to be of all ages and heights as she uses a metaphor in line three for Ã¢â¬Å"Their assorted heights would make a melodious chime.Ã¢â¬ The use of a musical instrument compared with the children gives an image of assortment. That their heights are varied and if lined up would look a little like a wooden wind instrument. At the beginning of stanza two an important word is used Ã¢â¬ËFlickering Ã¢â¬Ëit is used as onomatopoeia. The word flicker instantly reminds us of fast clicks. It is followed by Ã¢â¬Ëknots like televisionÃ¢â¬â¢. She gives an image of fast moving thread like the images on a television screen. In this line she uses a simile to give us that feeling of the children working very hard and looming quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"As the garden of Islam grows, the bench will be raisedÃ¢â¬ . This line introduces religion into the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. It adds more information to the children and gives us an idea of what their religion could be Ã¢â¬Å"IslamÃ¢â¬ . The carpets which they weave have scenes from the gardens in Islam. Stanza three tells us what happens to the carpets which the children make. That once finished it will go to the merchantÃ¢â¬â¢s truck to be sold most probably at a mosque (religious temple). Once again religion is mentioned emphasizing on its importance in the lives of the children. The carpets which they weave will give comfort and pleasure to those who look at it. As line three says Ã¢â¬Å"Deep and soft, it will give when heaped with prayerÃ¢â¬ . Another language technique is used, personification. Carol gives us more insight into the lives of the children in stanza four. The first line is powerful and very emotional as she finds common ground with the readers and the children. She mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"the children are hard at work in the school of daysÃ¢â¬ . It means that the children do not go to school, that their only school is the hard work they do at the factory. It could also show some kinds of exploitation, for the beautiful carpets which they weave little money is given back to them. This adds emotion and enhances the readers connection with the poem, they will show sympathy for the children who are not given the opportunity to an education. Line two indicates that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s small fingers are putting in color to whatever they make and all that ever will be is carpet. Nothing else, their creativity is based around carpets therefore it shows that they will probably have no future. Ã¢â¬Å"All- that- will- beÃ¢â¬ are strengthening words, used to enforce strength and power. Ã¢â¬Å"And freeze into the frame of all- that- wasÃ¢â¬ . She uses another language technique, Fly and freeze are alliterations and again the three last words are used for power. It means that the things the children weave or make will be carpet and that their future is ensured in weaving carpets. It is quite dark and sad as it symbolizes confinement and loss.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Stop living in the past, when you are pregnantÃ¢â¬ . Introduction: Ã¢â¬Å"Pregnancy is one of the most powerful creations and miracle. It is one of the most beautiful and significantly life altering events that a woman can ever experienceÃ¢â¬ (Elisabeth Hasselbeck). Much research is being done to determine both the myths and reality related to pregnancy. This paper shows that there are some myths related to pregnancy coming from old wives, regarding diet such as what to eat or not to eat, exercise, stress, medication. Moreover, there are misbelieves related to prediction of babyÃ¢â¬â¢s sex as well. Some major myths related to pregnancy are as following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diet Ã¢â¬ ¢ Exercise Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prescription and medication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Expectations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stress 1. Ã¢â¬Å"All over the world,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2. Ã¢â¬Å"Even though pregnancy is typically a happy time, its still very common for expecting moms to struggle with prescriptions and medications to deal with depression and other conditionsÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"Medication is taken as optional or is least adopted as a treatment regimen in case of maternal depression. One of the other hand, it is adopted in the case of gestational diabetes. Old wives believe that medication should not be taken during gestation and that the emotions are simply a natural part of pregnancy. It is also an emerging issue concerned to drug interaction in few selective cases such as women on antidepressants or drugs in their pre-pregnancy stateÃ¢â¬ (Macdonald, 2015). Pregnant women who took antidepressant that causes infant heart problems. Ã¢â¬Å"A prominent study linked selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a commonly prescribed type of antidepressant, to a rare heart and lung condition called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). In addition, another study connected the drugs to congenital heart defectsÃ¢â¬ (Moninger, n.d). 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Although exercise is good for health but there is stigma related to various exercises among pregnant women. Some woman believe that exercise will maintain their muscle strength whereas others avoid exercise due to its bad impact on the babyÃ¢â¬ : Some pregnant women should avoid exercise, researches shows that it could affect babyÃ¢â¬â¢s heart rate and development of brain. Supine exercises are theShow MoreRelatedLife Changing Moments700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesLife is like a box of chocolates; you never know what youre going to get. (Forrest Gump). Experiences received throughout life are random at best and not knowing which delectable treats are sweet, I brace myself for what may turn out to be life-changing. From these bitter and sweet occurrences, my life constantly reshapes the way I interpret and react to similar situations that arise. Life altering events change my behavior due to the outcome of decisions made, opportunities missed and phoneRead MoreHow I Met My Husband - Literary Essay715 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesordinary and worldly events, actual locations, and a very ironic tone in the story. Alice Munro also uses everyday people for her protagonists, who encounter normal events and emotions. In the story How I Met M y Husband, Edie shows the growth from someone who is very naÃ ¯ve to someone who is more realistic. In the beginning of this story, Edie is a very naÃ ¯ve fifteen-year-old girl. She does not yet realize that the world does not cater to her, or tell her how to do everything in life. One way she showsRead MoreWhen Heaven and Earth Changed Places Essay823 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHayslips life was full of more hardship and difficulty than most Americans can imagine. Until her early twenties Hayslips life revolved around War, at first with the French and later with the Americans. The Vietnam War shaped her life and that of her familys very strongly. From her earliest remembrances war distinctly affected the way her family lived and the life altering choices she had to make. Her life started off in a dramatic state and continued that way throughout her life as portrayedRead MoreThe Birth Of A Marathoner1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesglorious. Inspiring and empowering. Childbirth and marathons. No one ever said either one was easy, but most everyone agrees that each effort is well worth the pain. One mom who has undertaken both activities in her lifetime illustrates how comparable and rewarding she found the experiences to be. A fitting analogy When I first took up the challenge of running a marathon, another woman at work offered the sage wisdom that the experience was analogous to childbirth. She was specifically referring toRead More Amy Tans The Kitchen Gods Wife Essay1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbetween mothers and daughters, mother-daughter relationships, and the strength of women in the face of adversity. Tan even sets the feminist mood with the title of the book, which refers to a woman in Chinese Mythology who cared for a selfish man who became a minor god. She pulls from her own life experiences, relatives, and emotions to write this story, a factor that probably contributes to the realness of the plot and the roundness of the characters. Tans mothers previous marriage to an abusiveRead MoreMy Thoughts On My Experience1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthis one is quite difficult. I could start with my experiences perhaps. The last time I was asked a question as such was around nine years old. I would go to school and occasionally my friends would ask me do you look black or white? I pondered just how do you possibly act like a color, and why would I ever be forced to make such a decision? I simply act like me! Currently, my fascination is with the ideal that even after fifteen years of experience and obtained knowledge, I am still unable to findRead MoreCapturing a Moment with Photography1049 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages What can a picture really say? Photography can capture moments in time that will always hold a special place in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart allowing them to remember the emotion they felt during that time. Picture manipulations have been around for centuries and still exist today. In a popular picture from 1936, Dorothea Lange displays two forms of manipulation. She removed something so little, which represents so much by a method called technical retouching. It changed the whole emotion of the pictureRead MoreEffects Of Social Media Bad Essay1078 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIs Social Media Bad? While analyzing the effects of social media, the negatives may outweigh the positives. The reason for this can be found right in front of our faces. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society lacks the basic human social skills, and is unable to carry on a conversation without looking at their phones. Insecurity, addiction, and social skills all play an important role in the effects of social media. Those from the Millennial and Generation Z are commonly known as the age of introverts. These individualsRead More The Evil of Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesConrads novella, Heart of Darkness, describes a life-altering journey that the protagonist, Marlow, experiences in the African Congo.Ã The story explores the historical period of colonialism in Africa to exemplify Marlows struggles. Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is most often read as an attack upon colonialism.Ã Marlow, like other Europeans of his time, is brought up to believe certain things about colonialism, but his views change as he experiences the effects of colonialism first hand. This essayRead MoreItÃ¢â¬â¢S The Tale As Old As Time, The Monster That Lurks Within1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI surpassed these events, there was always something lurking around the corner: move in day, finding the right roommate, and the anticipation of how my classless wou ld be. There was always an event that would cause this angst inside, and since the future canÃ¢â¬â¢t be revealed until it has been lived, the anxiety would never fully disappear. It would seep in and out as I passed each obstacle. Thus no matter how much I found to escape, or how rattled I became because of these events, I could never fully
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Book Review: Share Jesus Without Fear Author Information William Fay began his walk and personal relationship with Jesus Christ in 1981. Before this, he was the President and Chief Executive Officer of a multi-million-dollar corporation linked to the Mafia, which was involved in racketeering, bookmaking and gambling. He also owned one of the largest brothels in the United States. After receiving Jesus, he went to Bible school and graduated from Denver Seminary in 1987. He is now a renowned evangelist who has written many books on contemporary evangelism. He is also a pastor, chaplain and nationally syndicated radio personality, who has shared his faith with over twenty five thousand of people. Linda Evans Shepherd is the co-authorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Evaluation As he addresses extensively the subject of evangelism, it appears that Fay is very confident that is book is well needed due to the Ã¢â¬Å"sin of silenceÃ¢â¬ that has gripped the Church and the body of Christ, in general. He has a powerful style that uses examples from his personal life and experiences to shows his reader that it is easy to share the Gospel. He also uses witnessing examples from the lives of various Christians to show the readers that they too can share the gospel without fear. He advocates a simple and non-confrontational approach to evangelism and states that God can use even imperfect attempts to share the Gospel. What God cannot use is the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s silence about the Gospel. Though many of FayÃ¢â¬â¢s examples are success stories, he also gives examples when non-believers do not accept Jesus and states that even where conversion does not take place, the believer who witnesses is still successful because of his or her obedience. He argues that evangelism is not about bringing people to Jesus or Ã¢â¬Å"winning soulsÃ¢â¬ but it is about obedience (p.3). He even implies that success is not to be measured by the number of people saved but by obedience in acting out our Christian lives, sharing the gospel and believing God for the results. This challenges a lot of churches and believers who have fallen in the trap of measuring their success based on the number of people who have accepted Jesus and yet it is the Holy spirit who does the work of conversionShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Expectations Without Fear By William Fay1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages4MAT Book Review of Share Jesus Without Fear by William Fay Todd Bush EVAN 525: Contemporary Evangelism Instructor: Dr. Jeff Ward June 11, 2016 Abstract William Fay lays out the structure of how a Christian can adequately and courageously share their confidence in Share Jesus Without Fear. The book sets up extremely well as Fay s techniques are pragmatic and conversational. The inquiries and Scriptures that he directs the peruser through are not hard to recall or comprehend,Read MoreEssay On Jonathan Edwards1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoriginal philosophical theologians of all times. In my Prospectus paper, I will be discussing the sermons and the works of Jonathan Edwards. Jonathan Edwards was a special kind of man, his words when spoke during his sermons and preaching struck complete fear straight into the hearts of his listeners. Jonathan Edwards when compared to other preachers of his time to include Whitfield, Davies and Brainard was the most powerful speaker of his time. It was Jonathan Edwards who started the Great Awakening, heRead MoreLeadership Character And Ethics Matter Written By R. Gordon Fisher And Perry J. Martini867 W ords Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen asked to conduct a review of a book pertaining to leadership, I immediately chose Inspiring Leadership Character and Ethics Matter written by R. Stewart Fisher and Perry J. Martini. This book suggested on the United States NavyÃ¢â¬â¢s Recommended Reading List (The Blue Jacket s Manual , 2015) in addition to multiple universities including Regent University. The focus of this book is based on one basic principle: doing the right thing and making the right leadership decisions based on the characterRead MoreJoseph Smith Believed The Laminites Were The Ancestors Of The Native American Indians Essay1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplaced in pits, scaffolds, trees, or in canoes. This sent the individual off into the spiritual world. They clearly were not adverse to cremation that was prevalent in the Mormon community. However, Jesus confirms, Ã¢â¬Å"And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and bo dy in hellÃ¢â¬ (Matt 10:28). This implies only one soul per body. This is another misconception due to the limited understanding of humans over GodÃ¢â¬â¢s divine nature. PerhapsRead MoreConcentric Circles of Concern 11509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLiberty Baptist Theological Seminary A Critical Review of Concentric Circles of Concern A Paper Submitted to Mr. Mark Traeger In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course Personal Evangelism EVAN 565 By Robert C. Stilwell, Jr. Feb. 7, 2010 Bibliographical Entry Author Information Oscar Thompson, the original author of Concentric Circles of Concern, was a pastor for twenty years before teaching personal evangelism at Southwestern Baptist TheologicalRead More Is It the Author, or His Content? Essay1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrson Scott CardÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, EnderÃ¢â¬â¢s Game, has been the most popular science fiction novel since its release is 1985. While the book is essentially a fantasy, it contains a lot of scientific and philosophical information that are both manifest and latent. The issue that critics argue over may not necessarily refer to the plot of the book, but rather to its moral dynamics. In this literary analysis, we will analyze Ender and his siblingÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship by referencing the Personality Development theoryRead MoreBook Review on Transforming Mission4544 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesTRANSFORMING MISSION BOOK REVIEW (Paradigm Shifts in the Theology of Mission) (Author: David J. Bosch) This paper intends to analyze the writings of David J. Bosch in his book entitled Ã¢â¬Å"TRANSFORMING MISSION Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission:Ã¢â¬ This book review shall be presented in four (4) parts. First, is an introduction and a statement of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intention for writing the book; secondly, a summary shall be presented about the major insights presented in this book. Thirdly, I shallRead MoreEveryman and the Bible: Exploring Good Deeds, Faith, and Salvation2306 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesreprimand Everyman for his sinful life and sends Death to summon him. At the beginning of the allegorical work where figures and actions symbolize general truths, a messenger shares GodÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns. The messenger tells the audience to watch and listen closely to the morality play so they can learn a lesson about life. Everyman fears Death, and he desires to know what one must do to earn salvation and enter heaven. The writer then implies that the way to achieve salvatio n is by doing good works. ThroughRead More Elie WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s Night and Corrie Ten Booms The Hiding Place Essay2856 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesCorrie Ten Boom are two of these survivors who, through their personal accounts, allow the reader to glimpse empathy within the soul and the heart. Elie Wiesel (1928- ), a journalist and Professor of Humanities at Boston University, is an author of 21 books. The first of his collection, entitled Night, is a terrifying account of WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s boyhood experience as a WWII Jewish prisoner of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s dominant and secretive Nazi party. At age 16 he was taken from his home in Sighet, Romania and became oneRead MoreThe Hiding Place vs. Night2929 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesCorrie Ten Boom are two of these survivors who, through their personal accounts, allow the reader to glimpse empathy within the soul and the heart. Elie Wiesel (1928- ), a journalist and Professor of Humanities at Boston University, is an author of 21 books. The first of his collection, entitled Night, is a terrifying account of Wiesels boyhood experience as a WWII Jewish prisoner of Hitlers dominant and secretive Nazi party. At age 16 he was taken from his home in Sighet, Romania and became one of
Friday, December 20, 2019
Alcohol is a substance that should be consumed in moderation, and should be used responsibly. Similar to any substance, there are consequences that come with the irresponsible and abusive use of it. Not only the drinker is affected by alcohol abuse. People around them including family, friends, potential offspring and even CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Care System are affected too. Specific to the health care system, there is a burden placed on it in regards to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) a variety of disorders grouped together as a result of the abuse of alcohol while pregnant. Alcohol abuse is a factor that contributes to health issues that some women endure from engaging in activities such as the consumption of alcohol while pregnant. Thus, CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system has to deal with the outcome associated with alcohol-related health problems, specifically, FASD. FASD can easily be prevented. If a mother does not consume alcohol during pregnancy, her child will not suffer with FASD. It can easily be prevented, but precautions are not being put in place to prevent FASD. Since interventions are not being used, the health care system is left to pay the costs. Doreen, M. R., Bonnett, D. M., Gass, C. B. (2006) notes that FASD has been studied ever since the 19th century but has been Ã¢â¬Å"poorly understood and largely overlooked.Ã¢â¬ In the past (Doreen, M. R., Bonnett, D. M., Gass, C. B. 2006). Since the behaviours and outcomes of FASD have been neglected, there has not been theShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Pre Natal Alcohol Exposure On The Canadian Health Care System1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPre-natal alcohol exposure is an established cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is now recognized as the most common preventable cause of mental impairment in North America (Popova et al., 2013). Individuals with FASD experience a wide range of neurological and psychological disabilities caused by permanent brain alterations (Petrenko et al., 2014). The adverse health outcomes that arise from FASD have lifelong implications and pose a significant burden on the Canadian health careRead MoreEffects of Alcohol Abuse1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlcohol abuse The term alcohol abuse in this case encompasses harmful use of alcohol and misuse of alcohol resulting from dependence. The experience of alcohol abuse can have far-reaching consequences on the family, the community, and the nation. According to NIDA, drug and substance abuse costs the nation $600 Billion every year. This cost factors in crime, healthcare, and lost productivity. Alcohol accounts for 40% of this cost. It is, therefore, necessary, within the context of the family, toRead MoreEssay on Against Legalization of Marijuana in Canada909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjust as alcohol or tobacco. Although legalizing marijuana may be beneficial to those people with medical purposes, it will create more problems and dangers to the society. The problems that associated with legalizing marijuana are causing negative impacts on public health and increasing marijuana consumption among youths. Also, the misuse of marijuana may cause people to drive under the influence of the drug, and hence, m ore accidents may occur, causing more expenses on public health care. ClearlyRead MoreEffect of Antiseptic Handwashing vs Alcohol Hand Sanitizer721 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEffect of Antiseptic Handwashing vs Alcohol Sanitizer on Health Care- Associated Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units Introduction This article seeks to determine if alcohol hand sanitizers are as effective as antiseptic handwashing at reducing or eliminating health care associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, recommends use of waterless alcohol hand products in lieu of traditional handwashingRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Ã¢â¬Å"If women didnÃ¢â¬â¢t drink anymore during pregnancy, there would never be another baby born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol EffectÃ¢â¬ (McCuen 33). This is a very powerful statement. It is also a very simple cure for an alarmingly high birth defect that all women have the power to stop. Ã¢â¬Å"Every year more than 40,000 American children are born with defects because their mother drank alcohol while pregnant Ã¢â¬Å" (McCuen 34). That is 1 to 3 per 1,000 live birthsRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a condition affecting children born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy. There are three criteria used to describe the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and to make a diagnosis of FAS. The first of these is a pattern of facial anomalies, these features include: #61558; Small eye openings #61558; Flat cheekbones #61558; Flattened groove between nose and upper lip #61558; Thin upper lip These characteristicsRead MoreHealth Systems Of Canada And Denmark. General Overview1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHealth Systems of Canada and Denmark General overview of Denmark In 2015 Denmark had a population of 5,699,000 within their Scandinavia geographic region (Countries Denmark, 2015). The Danish have a culture of high living standards and well-being. It is a developed country thatÃ¢â¬â¢s population is ranked above average in life expectancy (OECD Publishing, 2016). The average life expectancy for males is seventy Ã¢â¬â two. The women are expected to live until eighty- two years old (Countries Denmark, 2015)Read MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome The Effects of Alcohol on a Fetus During Pregnancy1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy and is characterized by specific patters of fetal deformities. Researchers are unsure at what stage in the pregnancy these malformations occur or the amount of alcohol consumed to cause these deformities. FAS is the leading cause of mental retardation that is preventable. There are usually three factors pertaining to a diagnosis of FAS: Ã¢â¬Å"the p resence of prenatal/postnatal growth retardation, craniofacial anomaliesRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Abuse Among Adolescents1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbegin to experiment with drugs and alcohol at an early age and often times donÃ¢â¬â¢t think about the negative stigma associated with drug abuse. Unfortunately, even casual use of drugs and alcohol can cause severe and long term health problems, such as an overdose or brain damage. Also, both legal and illegal drugs can have an effect on the teenÃ¢â¬â¢s mood, ultimately leading to depression, which places the teen at risk for suicide. Marijuana also has an adverse effect on memory, distorts the perceptionRead MoreFactors and Hazards of Infant Development Essay627 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesprenatal care. Two hazards I find important to avoid are alcohol consumption and addictive drugs. In this paper I will explain the importance of these three factors and hazards. The most important factor in an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s development is obtaining early prenatal care. Women should make an appointment as soon as she suspects she is pregnant (Marotz amp; Allen, 2012). It is not good to rely on home pregnancy tests because they are sometimes not accurate especially in the early days and weeks. A health care
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about theCurrent Development in Accounting Thoughtfor Financial Accounting Theory. Answer: Introduction IASB Pressed to Fix Wishy-Washy Accounting Principles The present article sheds light on resolving different indecisive accounting standards that is the wishy-washy accounting standards that essentially injects indistinctness into the financial declarations of the firm (IASB urged to fix 'wishy-washy' accounting rules., 2016). The current news article indicates the fact that the propagation in the international accounting standards such as the probable, likelihood as well as remote generates perplexity regarding the time when the company needs to hit the red button in congruence with the process of identification of the assets as well as liabilities as per the Australian Accounting Standard Board (AASB). However, narrowing the definitions helps in arriving at superior degree of consistency throughout the world (Gipper et al., 2013). From different quarters there is mounting pressure to implement stringent accounting principles in the nation Australia as well as Korea confirm a combined research project that looks at different cross-cult ural interpretations of different accounting principles. Again, as per the news article, it can be hereby ascertained that the Korean Accounting Standards Board draws near to different Australian peers in order to undertake different projects that indicates the extent of significance of the same. The current article also presents the lax rules, not culture and problems. The present article expounds the fact that culture exerts less influence on the differences in the interpretations than the lack of the transparent guidelines. Furthermore, the current segment also stresses the importance of the simple as well as clear language in the process of setting standards and upholding the requirements for the International Accounting Standard Board (Gipper et al., 2013). This in turn can help in lessening the number of terms utilized as well as for effectual outreach in diverse jurisdiction to make it certain the accounting obligations are clearly understandable as declared by the AASB Chair person Kris Peach. In addition to this, Thomson prefers comparable collaborative efforts between both the accounting standards AASB and its different counterparts in diverse areas that include China as well as Malaysia. However, Indonesia can be considered as the main concern provided the level of trade carried out between two different nations. In addition to this, the IASB is also accountable for generating International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and persuading as different nations as possible to utilize different regulations in order to ensure that the company accounts are comparable across worldwide boundaries (Dye et al., 2014). As mentioned in the present news article, approximately 120 of different jurisdiction now call for the use of different IFRS Standards by different publicly liable corporations. An evaluation of the IASB reflects the fact that there are in excess of 25000 of the total 48000 nationally listed corporations on the 85 major securities exchange ar ound the globe utilize IFRS. Finally, the current article also outlines the executive pay concerns where the chairperson of the IASB articulated different concerns regarding the growing substantiation of corporations that employ different non-statutory measures as well as creative accounting to flatter the overall financial performance and to augment the payouts to the specific management (Jorissen et al., 2014). The measures were essentially recognized as more and more misleading (IASB urged to fix 'wishy-washy' accounting rules., 2016). Concepts and Ideas The main idea lies behind increase of indecisive accounting that leads to bringing ambiguity into financial reports. In this particular article, emphasis has been given on discussing on the International Accounting Standards (Weil et al., 2013). Making use of ineffective accounting rules by organization give rise to confusion as presented in the financial statement. In order to reduce the confusion, accounting standards are being implemented for bringing uniformity of information. IASB make ways for bringing simple implications presented in the financial statement for any business organization. These are mainly pressurized under rules coming from accounting standard based in and around Australia. It requires further finalization of research activities for viewing at the cross-cultural interpretations in respect with accounting standards (Pratt, 2013). Korean Accounting Standards Board mainly aims at approaches its Australian peers for undertaking the project acting as indication for trade investment. It is important to consider the fact that IASB expresses his concern on matters relating to growing evidence for usage of non-statutory measures. It gives rise to creative accounting for flattering its financial performance as well as increase payout for management activities for future analysis purpose (Deegan, 2013). IASB brings out the major insurance companies for understanding the corporate disclosures in relation with financial statement in the most appropriate way. It takes into consideration majorly large scale projects in treating intangible assets as well as rate of regulation for reforming purpose in an effective way. It is responsible in conducting effective International Financial Reporting for most of the companies. Accountancy means the process of recording, classifying and reporting of financial transactions of a business. The success and failure of the business is dependent upon the proper accounting of the monetary transactions. Based on the accounting transactions, the financial statement of the company is prepared by the accountant. Annual statement of a company is the most important aspect of the business. This is the only medium by which the investors, banks, shareholders can assess the financial position of the company and take decisions whether they will invest in the company or not. Thus, it can be said that the financial statement of a company is a crucial aspect to the users of that statement. The financial statement of an organization contains the details of the assets and liabilities of that company. It is very important for the companies to recognize the assets and the liabilities of the company. The assets and liabilities must be shown in the respective position of the financial statement. The portion of assets and liabilities is a determinant of the financial position of the company. Investors will be interested in that company which has more assets than liabilities and they will invest in that company. On the other hand, the company having more amounts of liabilities over assets will be the last choice of the investors. Hence, assets and liabilities are an impotent aspect of the financial statement of the company. The article is about the use of some languages that makes the annual report of a company complicated to the users of that report. This type of languages is called the wishy-washy languages. The examples of this kind of languages are likelihood, probable, remote and many others. The main function of this kind of language is that they make the financial report of the companies inaccurate. This kind of words is used to mention probability that is when the answer is not accurate. On the other hand, financial statement of a company is a kind of statement where there is no place for probable events or information. The annual report of a company must contain accurate information. However, the use of these wishy-washy words is used by a lot of companies in todays world. The use of these words is creating confusion in the decision making process of the companies. There are certain motives behind the using of these types of words by the accountants. The primary motive is to manipulate the annu al report of the companies. It helps to increase the payout to management. On the other hand, the users get confused by the use of these kinds of words. Thus, it is strictly prohibited to use these kinds of misleading words in the financial statements of the companies. There are instance of companies where the use of this kind of words has led them to punishable under the company act. It is better to avoid the use of these kinds of words (Friedman, 2013). International Accounting Standard Board, commonly known as the IASB, is the accounting conceptual framework setter. According to IASB, the use of this kind of misleading words must be stopped on a highest priority. This is the reason IASB is setting rules and regulation to prohibit the use of these words. As per the IASB, accurate and better degree of consistency can be achieved by narrowing down the use of these kinds of confusing words. On the other hand, the use of this kind of words is against the rules of the accounting concept framework. In todays accounting world, this is a growing concern. Thus, almost every country is taking initiatives to resolve the issue of these wishy-washy words. Recently, the Korean Accounting standard board has collaborated with the Australian board to take care of the matter. A research has taken place to the use of this kind of words. The result is something astonishing. Researchers found 13 wishy-washy words which are used in international standard s. According to the research, there is a vast importance of using simple language in the accounting. The International Accounting Standard Board needs to cut down the number of terms used in the accounting so that there is clarity in the annual report of the companies. IASB has taken the initiative to convince as many possible countries not to use this kind of wishy-washy words. Prevention of use these kinds of languages will make the annual reports more reliable (Hansen, 2012). References Deegan, C. (2013). Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Dye, R. A., Glover, J. C., Sunder, S. (2014). Financial engineering and the arms race between accounting standard setters and preparers.Accounting Horizons,29(2), 265-295. Friedman, L. (2013). Lawrence Friedman Responds to J. Todd Dean.Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association,61(4), NP5-NP10. Gipper, B., Lombardi, B. J., Skinner, D. J. (2013). The politics of accounting standard-setting: A review of empirical research.Australian Journal of Management,38(3), 523-551. Hansen, R. (2012). Planners need to be more ethical, accountable and transparent.Planning News,38(1), 6. IASB urged to fix 'wishy-washy' accounting rules. (2016).Financial Review. Retrieved 27 September 2016, from https://www.afr.com/business/accounting/iasb-pressed-to-fix-wishywashy-accounting-rules-20160801-gqirpd Jorissen, A., Lybaert, N., Orens, R., Van der Tas, L. (2014). Corporate participation in the due process of international accounting standard setting: An analysis of antecedents. Pratt, J. (2013). Financial accounting in an economic context. Wiley Global Education. Weil, R. L., Schipper, K., Francis, J. (2013). Financial accounting: an introduction to concepts, methods and uses. Cengage Learning.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
In 1813 Owen published a pamphlet, A New View of Society, where he described his vision of society. He also became active in improving living conditions of employees through the implementation of improvements in housing, sanitation, public works and establishing schools for the children. Owen strongly believes that character is a product of circumstances and that environment and early education is critical in forming good character. While being extremely controversial during his lifetime, Owen is credited with being the forerunner of the modern human relations school of management. Charles Babbage (1792-1871) Charles Babbage, a noted English mathematician, is credited as being the father of the modern computer for performing the fundamental research for the first practical mechanical calculator as well as doing basic research and development on an analytical engine acknowledged to be the forerunner of todays modern computer. His interest in management stemmed largely from his concerns with work specialization or the degree to which work is divided into its parts. We will write a custom essay sample on Management Thought or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This is now recognized as being the forerunner of contemporary operations research. Babbages other major management contribution came from the development of a modern profit-sharing plan including an employee bonus for useful suggestions as well as a share of the companys profits. While both Owen and Babbage were important nineteenth century management innovators, their efforts lacked the central tenets of a theory of management. Owen was primarily credited with making specific suggestions regarding management techniques in the areas of human relations while Babbage is credited with developing the concepts of specialization of labor and profit sharing. These pre-classicists paved the way for the theoretical ferment of the classical school of management. The twentieth century witnessed a period of tremendous management theory ferment and activity. Calls were heard for the development of a comprehensive management theory. The classical school of management was primarily concerned with developing such a theory to improve management effectiveness in organizations. However, the classical school theorists went a step further.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essays An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essay An Account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International Levels Essay An account of Library and Information Science Education at National and International levels By Keshav R. Dhuri Goa University INTRODUCTION: Among the countries imparting library and information science (LIS) education, India would rank within five nations chronologically, in output and contribution to the development of thought content. If it was Melvil Dewey who made an auspicious beginning in the west, then much more notable contributions came from Dr Ranganathan in the east in all domains of LIS knowledge, thought and content. For LIS education and pedagogy from India in general and from Ranganathan in particular, the it has been unmatched and the world has always turned towards India for something new to emerge from and excel. India has been a pioneer in education and research in LIS, particularly among the developing nations who are looking for a just educational environment in this context. What India can offer to the developing nations in imparting best education, training and research to the aspirants has been discussed in this paper? It gives a brief description of various aspects of LIS education in India and its implied suitability to the aspirants of educatee from the developing nations. PROFILE OF LIS EDUCATION IN INDIA: 1) Genesis and Growth LIS education in India started in 1911, when the Baroda School was started by W A Borden due to the initiative taken by Sayaji Rao Gaikwad II, the then Maharaja of State of Baroda. Since then, India has not looked back and has been striding high in the ladder A. Y. Asundi and c. R. Karisiddappa Information Officer, Siddaganga Institute of Technology. The paper presents a succinct profile and contributions of Indian LIS education since its inception. It also attempts to bring to the fore how this profile presents its international potentiality and perspective scenario in context to developing countries. Bull. Inf. This apart, several universities are concurrently running Distance Education Programmes too. The details of the developments of LIS education in India are well recorded in the status report of the Curriculum Development Committees (CDC) Report on Curriculum for LIS by the University Grants Commission (UGC) 2 ) UGC Efforts: The UGC efforts in the development of LIS education are well evidenced by the three committees that were constituted to formulate model curriculum and pedagogic guidelines for the LIS courses in India. The Ranganathan reports on University and College Libraries and Library Science Education were the first landmarks in this regard. Later, report of the Kaula Committee on Curriculum Development in LIS Education was published in 1992. This was followed with the Karisiddappa Committee report on Curriculum Development in LIS in 2002. The impact of these efforts were first seen in the continuous development of the curriculum with changing times. Second, the UGC recognised LIS as a discipline on par with other pure and applied subjects. Third was the growth of teaching departments in various universities. And finally, it also necessitated the need for qualified personnel to teach the subject, which gave impetus to start the masters and research degrees programmes. Thus the curriculum, developed over the years for the LIS matches with the modem and contemporary developments in the field and has been responsible for the creation of manpower to man the different types of professional responsibilities, in practice and teaching. ) Role of Professional Bodies and Other Agencies: The role of professional associations in India in the promotion of the LIS education and its systematic development has also been noteworthy. The three main professional associations-the Indian Library Association (ILA), the Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centres (IASLIC), and the Indian Association of Teachers of Library and Inform ation Science (IATLIS)-have been holding annual conferences at the national and international levels to take stock of manpower needs and supply of qualified manpower from the departments. In particular, the IA TLIS has been focusing much closer on the education sector than the other two; it widened the scope of the membership to plasticizing librarians so that the teachers and practioners share a common platform towards the developments of education sector and the needs of the practice sector. The IATLIS with ILA and IASLIC also organised jointly a National Seminar on Hundred years of Library Science Education and its Future in October 1987. IATLIS and AGLIS again rganised jointly a National Seminar on IT and its Impact on LIS Education and Library Management in 19965, Two unique courses were developed by the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) and the Indian National Science and Documentation Centre (lNSDOC) to cater to the needs of special libraries in particular. However, the inculcation of the graduates from these institutions in teaching programmes have given a new direction to the educational paradigm of LIS. While DRTC is an autonomous central ins titute under the Indian Statistical Institute, INSDOC is a constituent centre of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. The National Centre for Science Information is also offering a postmasters degree course with intensive application of IT to LIS. 4) Levels of Courses in LIS in India In India a variety of courses in LIS are offered and as such the learners have a wide DESIDOC Bull. Inf. Technol. , choice. From a three months Certificate Course to two years Diploma Courses are available to create Para-professionals. The Bachelors, Masters, MPhil and PhD degree programmes are also offered by most of the universities conducting LIS courses. Even at the Masters degree level, there are two courses offering one year BLISc, and one year MLISc or a two years integrated MLISc programme. Besides these, library science is also offered as an optional subject at the three years degree programme to inculcate professional knowledge with college level itself. The UGC report of the CDC gives more details on the structure of these categories. 5) Distance Education in LIS in India: Besides the formal educational programmes in LIS, India also has a good infrastructure of distance education programmes in LIS. As many as 52 universities are offering distance education prgrammes in LIS; some of them such as the Indira Gandhi National Open University (lGNOU) are providing this facility exclusively. IGNOU offers Bachelors, Masters, and Postmasters degrees and even is in the line to extend doctoral programmes in LIS through distance education mode. The course material and the audio- video lessons prepared by IGNOU can match to any international standards in this regard. 6) Curriculum Development and Research Growth: As already mentioned the curriculum of LIS has been continuously revised by he departments at least once in five years. In some cases, it is even once in three years. It takes recourse to the progress of the subject in its various dimensions. The three committees, mentioned already, have been second came only after 20 years. But, today the number of PhDs in LIS far exceeds the time frame; there are 1000 estimated PhD holders in India and each one of them has been guiding several st udents from their respective departments. In the next five years the number of PhD holders in LIS in India would be around SOOO-estimated at about five times more than today. A national meeting on Research in LIS was held in 1994 and numbers of papers on this subject were published to take stock of research output Infrastructure and Other Physical facilities UGCs initiative in providing adequate infrastructure to the LIS departments has enabled them to equip with IT laboratories to provide intensive training in their use. It is a matter of pride that among the developing nations India has the best suited curriculum with orientation to technology applications, (India has been the earliest to include a compulsory paper on library automation as early as in 1980s). The National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) under UGC have provided enough impetus towards creating good infrastructure, for both libraries and teaching departments. The faculty to teach the traditional and IT related subjects is also available in good number as is evidenced by the large number of conferences, workshops and refresher courses organised by several professional bodies, and the Academic Staff Colleges. The IATLIS also organised a National Conference on the Study of the Infrastructure Facilities available in the LIS departments of the country8. Besides, a statistical presentation in this context has also been given in the UGC Reportl. 8) IT in LIS Education: After the USA, the UK and some European countries, India is one among the few countries, where information and communication technology (ICT)-oriented LIS teaching is being provided. In late 1960s and early 1970s teaching of computer application commenced in Indian library science departments. The courses run by the DRTC and INSDOC also included a paper on library automation. The starting of the INFLIBNET and the Online Information 8 DESIDOC Bull. Inf. Technol. , Retrieval Experiments carried out at National Aeronautical Laboratory and INSDOC gave boost to the inculcation of new technology trends. The contributions of private agencies, in particular the online and CD-ROM database search services started by Informatics (India) are responsible for the initiation of technology culture in Indian libraries and among the library science teachers. A detailed account of technology application in India libraries and library science education has been given by Kumar. The National Information System in Science and Technology/Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (NISSA T IDS IR) and other research and development organisations like Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) and Sectoral Information Centres under NISSA T have also contributed to this process of technology application in libraries and the manpower development to man many of these libraries and information centres. Today, India with many projects on digital libraries on hand can be considered as technologically advanced in LIS education with IT applications. Many national and international conferences organised in this aspect gives a clear idea of its technological capabilities. INTERNATIONALISATION OF LIBRARY SCIENCE EDUCATION: The profile of LIS education development prescribed under above shows Indias unique experiences in different aspects of LIS education and place it on par with developed nations in imparting LIS education to the aspirants within and outside the country. Students from Kenya, Ethiopia, Thailand and from SAARC countries: and from many African and South-East Asian regions are coming to India under the fellowship of Indian Council for Cultural Relation (lCCR) for pursuing studies in LIS (from bachelors to PhD programmes) and leading the LIS education mantle in their respective countries. In 2005 two Indian professors of LIS were invited by the Danish Government to participate in the workshop organised by the Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, where the participants were LIS educators from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The two scholars are members of the Discussion Group formed by International Federation of Library Association (IFLA) with a special emphasis on LIS education in developing countries. There is growing awareness in the Asia-Pacific region about the training and practice of library and information professionals in the 21st century and need for a regional cooperation with the countries like India, which is affluent with vast experience of teaching, research and practice in LIS. Study by Abdullahi, et al. needs to be referred here in order to surface the ppropriateness of India taking a lead-role in this context, particularly with an emphasis on developing countries. They made a theoretical survey on the importance of international and intercultural opportunities in serving as essential components In educating and training library and information professionals. The scope of the paper is though limited to Europe and North America, but the kind of opportunities identified by them can be a good frame work for the others to set-in their goals. Promotion of distance education is another area where internationalisation of LIS education can be promoted. India, since last 25 years; has been imparting distance education programme is LIS, particularly through IGNOU. IGNOU over the years has achieved substantial experience in this area, has created excellent course material using nations best subject experts to write the lessons, and has also broadcasted the lessons through its national television network. Like India, many other developing countries such as Ghana have been utilising ICT for distance education programmes. Martey in his paper has described the ICT scene in Ghana from 1996 to 2004. His paper emphases on the benefits that distance learners in Ghana will derive from an ICT -enhanced distance education. The paper also makes some suggestions as how academic libraries in Ghana can assist distance learners. India with her experience can also exchange the views with others in DESIDOC Bull. Inf. technology, the developing world. The suggestions made by Subba Rao in this context are also worth mentioning STUDY OF ISSUES RELATING TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: The broad perspectives on making LIS curriculum viable for the global issues were Presented by Karisiddappa. They also deliberated on major issues like emergence of information and knowledge society. The paper enlisted nine major factors that needed inclusion in the LIS curriculum. Many of them have now find place in the curriculum on LIS developed by the CDC of UGC. The curriculum has a viable balance between the traditional and technological aspects, practices, skills, and techniques. Karisiddappa has succinctly stressed the need for a model curriculum for developing countries. Shiholo and Ocholla21 in their paper have deliberated on the training needs of LIS professionals in Kenya. Their paper implies to seek international collaboration in developing a need-based curriculum. Indian expertise can be a part of this exercise to fulfill the requirements. Wijetunge stated that Poor information system has poor curriculum development in Sri Lanka. Ocholla and Bothma made some detailed study on the status, trends and challenges of library and information education and training in Eastern and Southern Africa. Similar studies have come from Mexico by Morales and from Croatia by Horvat. In the comparative case study of graduate courses in library and information studies in the UK, USA, India and Iran Mortezaie and Naghshineh have highlighted the need for curricula revamping in terms of diversity of courses offered; university independence; diversity of degrees offered; ease and flexibility of the higher education system; updated course programmes; emphasis on research; and course and curricula development. The paper also laments on a widening chasm between LIS education in developing countries and those in developed countries. In this context the paper by Asundi and Karisiddappa has presented a detailed perspective on the developing countries needs in their paper presented at the Copenhagen workshop in Denmark. Leif has identified number of collaborative aspects, which are not successful in Europe but could be of relevant to developing nations. The issues of collaboration can be examined by the Indian LIS teachers to make concerted efforts to achieve them. Asundi have also identified some areas of study relevant to developing countries. Like the Bologna Declaration-an international agreement with the help of IFLA could be arrived at with the Indian library and information science Departments working towards achieving the collaborative and participative attitude with The developing country schools. Chaudhry identified The aim to look into projects undertaken to promote collaboration between LIS education programmes in South East Asia. He suggested a plan for developing a repository of learning objects for facilitating sharing of teaching materials for improved LIS education. Faculty development was identified another important area of possible future collaboration in the region with possible involvement of international forums. Wijetunge, made a descriptive survey of LIS teachers of Sri Lanka. He identified a strange reason for the dearth of faculty to teach LIS subjects in Sri Lanka. He also expressed lack of full-time teachers to teach in LIS schools resulting in a set-back to professional education in Sri Lanka. Though the paper suggests for a complete manpower survey of LIS professionals, the gap needs to be filled-up as early as possible. Until then neighboring countries like India, which has needed expertise can help under the collaborative approach adopted by the SAARC countries. The two sections, the internationalization and the issues relating to developing countries, should be placed in juxtaposition and superimposed with the profile of the LIS education presented in the Sections International forums like IFLA have endorsed this View as is evident from the formation of Discussion Group under its purview. The trends in LIS education are rather very conspicuous and the influence of technology is diversifying its approach. Hence, the countries with both traditional approach and suitability to adopt the technology will endure the durability for the future. CONCLUSION: The LIS education in India has a unique profile, as it started as a voluntary vocation by many university libraries. This trend followed for at least a decade or so. An independent identity to the course was reached only in early 1970s. Despite these lacunae, it has progressed well and has attracted the world focus particularly that of the developing world. The profile of LIS education given in the paper shows the landmark achievements in its stride for recognition. Today, it has reached a stage where it is being considered as a course to be reckoned with technologically affluent programmes, and being considered on the agenda of apex bodies offering technical education. It is influenced by within and goes with concurrent progress made by India in the field of IT. In traditional subjects of LIS too, India stands different with scholarly contribution by Or Ranganathan and his contemporaries and disciples. Or Ranganathans contributions are being considered in the design of computerized information retrieval systems. Eisenberg, Michael B, et al. mentioned that an integration of traditional areas and IT developments is seen vibrantly in India as is evidenced by the PhD theses generated by the departments of LIS of Indian universities. The range of LIS subjects researched in India presents a very broad base, expressing in itself its potentialities and expertise in conventional subjects like library classification, library cataloguing, and library management and in the specialized areas like, digital libraries and open archives initiatives. The internationalization of LIS education is an issue being discussed at many international forums, and the role that Europe and North America played in the early genesis, was noteworthy. However, the needs of the developing countries are variable and they are looking towards viable partners to suit their social, cultural, economic and political environment. In consideration of these aspects, India can be considered as a viable partner in reshaping LIS education in developing countries. REFERENCES: 1. Dayani, M. H. (2005). Library and information science educational curriculum: Guidelines for evolution. Quarterly Journal of Library and Information Science 3 (1): 1-20. (Persian language). 2. Fattahi, R. (2005). Education for librarianship in Iran before the 1979 Islamic Revolution: An historical review of the American roles and influences. Library Review 54 (5): 316-327. 3. Fattahi, R. , et. al. (2006). The new MA curriculum for librarianship and information science: The report of a research project. Iranian Journal of Information Science and Technology 4 (2) 4. Ghadirian, A. , ; Asili, G. (2005). The prophecy of government, university and industry in national development. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education: 127. (Persian language). 5. Gharibi, H. (n. d. ) Information Committee bulletin, No. 8, Available: irandoc. ac. ir/Com/Newsletter/Bulletin-8. htm#A ?. (Persian language). 6. Hayati, Z. (2008). Library and information science challenges in universities of Iran. Quarterly Journal of Library and Information Science 1 (2): 23. (Persian language). 7. Human resource development. (2002). Damparvar Journal 3:9. (Persian language). 8. Iranian Book News Agency (IBNA). (2008). Library and information science educational curricula should be correct: An interview with Dr. Horri. Available: ibna. ir/vdcgwq9x. ak9n34prra. html. (Persian language). 9. Kumar, P. S. G. Computerisation of Indian libraries. B. R. Publishing, New Delhi, 1977.